All Breed Statistics

The following breed comparisons are based on averages for dogs in our database. Data is dynamic as the database is regularly updated. Breeds with over 100 dog results are highlighted in green because these results can be considered reliable. Results may change but will do so gradually and only as breeders change their breeding practices. Breeds with under 100 but over 50 are marked in yellow because these are conditional results. These may change with the addition of dogs, but current results may provide some important clues. Breeds with under 50 dog results are not yet considered reliable.

We actively seek more results! Contribute to your breed effort! Please submit your dogs' results today.

There are various methods of assessing homozygosity or inbreeding. We show Internal Relatedness (IR) and Homozygosity by Locus (HL) because they are weighted by allele frequency and widely used in many modern population genetics studies. Mouse over categories for more explanations.

Breed Number in Database
Observed Heterozygosity Average heterozygosity in the breed
Expected Heterozygosity Expected heterozygosity in the breed
Fixation Index How inbred the breed is - inbred is over 0 and outbred is under 0.
Average Alleles per Locus Average number of versions of genes found
Effective Alleles per Locus Number of alleles with impact on diversity
Average Internal Relatedness A measure of how similar genes inherited from each parent are
Average Homozygosity by Locus A measure of inbreeding weighted by how common alleles are
Average Percent Homozygous Percent of all loci that are a matched pair
Akita - American690.5930.6080.0126.732.950.040.3740.8%
Akita - Blend460.6260.601-0.0607.762.730.000.3637.4%
Akita - Japanese1530.5390.540-0.0086.612.390.010.4246.1%
Alaskan Klee Kai3650.5700.5720.0125.642.660.000.3842.9%
American Eskimo - Miniature490.6540.656-0.0016.
American Eskimo - Standard600.5340.5640.0735.642.570.050.4246.7%
American Hairless Terrier600.6710.6720.0007.613.480.000.3032.9%
Berger Picard1460.4360.4390.0223.911.990.010.4856.4%
Bernese Mountain Dog1470.5780.5770.0035.852.650.000.3942.2%
Biewer Terrier2690.6730.6780.0067.883.460.010.3132.8%
Black Russian Terrier350.6700.6830.0176.453.500.010.3132.2%
Border Collie120.6610.7100.0827.673.820.040.2931.1%
Cardigan Welsh Corgi340.6210.6420.0285.523.230.040.3437.9%
Doberman Pinscher11170.4720.5050.0637.972.320.070.4652.7%
English Mastiff60.6560.589-0.1043.732.85-0.110.2734.3%
Flat-Coated Retriever7540.5530.5600.0066.002.600.010.3944.6%
German Shepherd Dog60.0000.6360.0005.733.090.150.4446.0%
Giant Schnauzer2650.6230.6540.0637.483.520.040.3337.7%
Golden Retriever1270.6820.6880.0088.393.430.020.3131.8%
Great Dane10.7570.677-0.0766.483.50-0.140.2024.2%
Greater Swiss Mountain Dog590.4770.470-0.0063.882.100.000.4552.3%
Havana Silk Dog460.7300.685-0.0676.033.68-0.060.2426.7%
Irish Red & White Setter390.6600.642-0.0376.093.18-0.010.3234.5%
Irish Setter80.7150.571-0.2254.822.63-0.110.2828.4%
Irish Wolfhound770.5130.519-0.0023.972.370.020.4348.7%
Italian Greyhound5120.6240.6500.0487.423.350.040.3437.6%
Labrador Retriever1580.6460.6970.0777.483.560.080.3435.5%
Lakeland Terrier60.6010.571-0.0614.552.55-0.070.3639.9%
Llewellin Setter80.7050.630-0.1566.093.13-0.030.2829.5%
Magyar Agar290.7370.716-0.0287.183.83-0.020.2526.3%
Poodle - Miniature3400.7080.7260.0258.644.160.030.2829.3%
Poodle - Standard45880.6850.6990.01910.033.710.020.3031.4%
Poodle - Toy2010.7220.7330.0158.854.160.010.2727.5%
Rat Terrier250.7530.7610.0087.824.600.010.2424.7%
Saint Bernard890.6210.6260.0075.613.170.010.3337.9%
Scottish Collie1260.6120.603-0.0167.002.950.000.3539.0%
Shiba Inu1380.6700.665-0.0047.183.450.000.3032.9%
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA2470.5780.557-0.0476.182.66-0.040.3642.1%
Swedish Vallhund4780.5660.5700.0115.032.590.010.4043.4%

We can now use complex mathematical formulas to determine genetic relatedness, using just the identifying alleles in the UC Davis Genetic Diversity Test. Genetic relatedness is determined by the probabilities of animals inheriting the exact same alleles at the exact same loci. Those with more alleles that are the same - even infrequent ones - can be said to be genetically related. They could be related directly or indirectly, but they are genetically similar.

Likewise we can now identify dogs that are unrelated to others. Breeds should have many dogs that are unrelated to others so that if there is a problem, dogs can be selectively breed to lower risks for that problem. Some breeds have maybe unrelated dogs, and others have very few and are therefore at risk.

BreedNumber in Database
Average Genetic Relatedness How closely related same breed dogs are on average
Akita - American69-0.05
Akita - Blend46-0.01
Akita - Japanese153-0.01
Alaskan Klee Kai3650.00
American Eskimo - Miniature49-0.05
American Eskimo - Standard60-0.04
American Hairless Terrier600.03
Berger Picard146-0.01
Bernese Mountain Dog1470.00
Biewer Terrier2690.00
Black Russian Terrier350.02
Border Collie12-0.04
Cardigan Welsh Corgi34-0.06
Doberman Pinscher1117-0.05
English Mastiff6-0.08
Flat-Coated Retriever7540.00
German Shepherd Dog6-0.07
Giant Schnauzer2650.00
Golden Retriever127-0.03
Great Dane11.00
Greater Swiss Mountain Dog59-0.04
Havana Silk Dog46-0.01
Irish Red & White Setter39-0.05
Irish Setter80.53
Irish Wolfhound77-0.04
Italian Greyhound5120.00
Labrador Retriever158-0.04
Lakeland Terrier60.10
Llewellin Setter80.01
Magyar Agar290.03
Poodle - Miniature340-0.02
Poodle - Standard4588-0.02
Poodle - Toy201-0.01
Rat Terrier25-0.03
Saint Bernard89-0.01
Scottish Collie126-0.01
Shiba Inu1380.00
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA2470.00
Swedish Vallhund478-0.01

Alleles are versions of genes, and the alleles tracked by the UC Davis Genetic Diversity Test are identifiers. Alleles are either infrequent in a breed, at an average or median frequency or highly frequent in that breed. All breeds have a certain number that are highly frequent because that's part of what makes them a breed. However, when too many become highly frequent, the breed is at risk for loss of genetic health.

Dogs with more infrequent alleles tend to be less related to any possible bottlenecks or founder effects - situations where only a few dogs become unnaturally influential in a breed. Some breeds have known bottlenecks, and one way to correct these is to look for and breed for a higher Outlier Index in the breed. The lower the average OI in a breed, the more it is influenced by a small set of founders or a genetic bottleneck.

BreedNumber in Database
Avg. Infrequent Alleles per Dog Alleles at risk of being bred out of the population
Avg. Median Alleles per Dog Alleles at balanced frequency
Avg. Highly Frequent Alleles Alleles at risk of becoming too common
Avg. Outlier Index A measure of influence from a genetic bottleneck
Akita - American699.48.448.20.34
Akita - Blend4610.
Akita - Japanese1536.08.751.40.25
Alaskan Klee Kai3655.
American Eskimo - Miniature4910.211.943.90.42
American Eskimo - Standard608.08.949.10.31
American Hairless Terrier609.
Berger Picard1468.911.345.80.37
Bernese Mountain Dog14710.17.348.70.32
Biewer Terrier2698.38.748.90.31
Black Russian Terrier358.58.848.70.31
Border Collie1211.311.842.80.45
Cardigan Welsh Corgi3411.
Doberman Pinscher11175.
English Mastiff613.015.537.50.61
Flat-Coated Retriever7546.77.851.50.25
German Shepherd Dog67.511.347.20.33
Giant Schnauzer2656.58.650.90.27
Golden Retriever1277.
Great Dane19.
Greater Swiss Mountain Dog5910.611.843.60.43
Havana Silk Dog4612.111.642.30.49
Irish Red & White Setter3910.510.045.60.39
Irish Setter819.69.337.10.68
Irish Wolfhound779.39.547.20.35
Italian Greyhound5126.
Labrador Retriever1587.011.845.30.34
Lakeland Terrier66.811.547.70.32
Llewellin Setter818.610.836.60.68
Magyar Agar2910.610.245.20.39
Poodle - Miniature3409.59.647.30.35
Poodle - Standard45888.25.452.40.25
Poodle - Toy2019.77.948.30.33
Rat Terrier2512.110.343.60.44
Saint Bernard899.312.843.90.41
Scottish Collie1268.46.551.10.27
Shiba Inu13810.29.845.90.38
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA2476.96.852.20.25
Swedish Vallhund4788.413.744.20.40

Another way to compare breeds is to look at ancestry averages. Dogs from unusual lines tend to have more unusual ancestry, calculated not allele by allele but locus by locus. When dogs have two parents that are unusual, they have more pairs of alleles with low frequency. When an unusual dog is bred to a highly typical dog, they have more pairs of alleles where one allele is highly frequent and the other is unusual. When breeds are well managed, and breeders select strongly for health while also breeding less related dogs, the breeds tend to have higher numbers of average frequency alleles. Where there have been recent or sustain outliers being bred to more typical dogs, there will be a higher 'admixed' percentage.

BreedNumber in Database
Unusual Ancestry Average percent of unusual genetics inherited from both parents
Average Ancestry Average percent of well balanced genetics inherited from both parents
Typical Ancestry Average percent of highly typical genetics inherited from both parents
Admixed Ancestry Average percent of both highly common and unusual genetics inherited from both parents.
Akita - American696.2%4.0%70.2%19.6%
Akita - Blend467.2%0.9%71.1%20.8%
Akita - Japanese1533.2%4.4%78.6%13.7%
Alaskan Klee Kai3652.8%3.4%80.4%13.4%
American Eskimo - Miniature497.5%6.5%66.3%19.7%
American Eskimo - Standard604.6%5.1%73.5%16.8%
American Hairless Terrier605.8%3.1%69.7%21.5%
Berger Picard1464.7%10.4%65.4%19.6%
Bernese Mountain Dog1476.3%2.5%69.7%21.5%
Biewer Terrier2694.4%3.1%73.7%18.7%
Black Russian Terrier355.1%3.7%72.7%18.5%
Border Collie128.9%6.8%62.6%21.7%
Cardigan Welsh Corgi349.5%5.7%64.4%20.4%
Doberman Pinscher11172.1%1.9%83.6%12.4%
English Mastiff68.1%14.2%50.0%27.8%
Flat-Coated Retriever7543.4%3.3%78.1%15.2%
German Shepherd Dog64.6%8.6%71.7%15.2%
Giant Schnauzer2653.5%4.3%78.0%14.1%
Golden Retriever1273.9%2.2%75.9%18.0%
Great Dane19.1%3.0%69.7%18.2%
Greater Swiss Mountain Dog596.0%10.6%60.4%22.9%
Havana Silk Dog468.7%6.1%61.3%23.9%
Irish Red & White Setter397.3%4.7%67.3%20.8%
Irish Setter813.3%7.2%41.7%37.9%
Irish Wolfhound775.6%6.1%68.9%19.5%
Italian Greyhound5124.1%3.3%78.5%14.1%
Labrador Retriever1585.9%5.6%74.6%14.0%
Lakeland Terrier65.1%4.1%76.3%14.7%
Llewellin Setter814.8%6.5%47.4%31.4%
Magyar Agar296.3%4.7%65.1%23.9%
Poodle - Miniature3406.4%3.9%70.4%19.2%
Poodle - Standard45884.0%1.9%75.4%18.6%
Poodle - Toy2016.4%2.9%70.6%20.1%
Rat Terrier258.4%4.5%63.3%23.9%
Saint Bernard897.6%8.3%66.0%18.2%
Scottish Collie1264.0%2.4%74.4%19.2%
Shiba Inu1387.4%4.2%68.0%20.4%
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA2473.8%2.3%78.4%15.6%
Swedish Vallhund4787.6%6.3%70.5%15.6%