All Breed Statistics

The following breed comparisons are based on averages for dogs in our database. Data is dynamic as the database is regularly updated. Breeds with over 100 dog results are highlighted in green because these results can be considered reliable. Results may change but will do so gradually and only as breeders change their breeding practices. Breeds with under 100 but over 50 are marked in yellow because these are conditional results. These may change with the addition of dogs, but current results may provide some important clues. Breeds with under 50 dog results are not yet considered reliable.

We actively seek more results! Contribute to your breed effort! Please submit your dogs' results today.

There are various methods of assessing homozygosity or inbreeding. We show Internal Relatedness (IR) and Homozygosity by Locus (HL) because they are weighted by allele frequency and widely used in many modern population genetics studies. Mouse over categories for more explanations.

Breed Number in Database
Average Alleles per Locus Average number of versions of genes found
Effective Alleles per Locus Number of alleles with impact on diversity
Average Internal Relatedness A measure of how similar genes inherited from each parent are
Average Homozygosity by Locus A measure of inbreeding weighted by how common alleles are
Average Percent Homozygous Percent of all loci that are a matched pair
Akita (Blend)167.182.780.080.3940.7%
Alaskan Klee Kai2605.032.630.010.3943.4%
American Akita356.613.050.030.3639.3%
Biewer Terrier1247.243.400.000.3032.7%
Doberman Pinscher3797.152.300.080.4754.2%
Flat-Coated Retriever2575.612.610.020.4044.9%
Giant Schnauzer1037.003.520.030.3236.6%
Golden Retriever588.303.410.010.3131.7%
Havanese1819.004.500.040.2727.7%
Italian Greyhound1967.093.380.040.3437.3%
Japanese Akita936.362.400.000.4145.3%
Labrador Retriever746.976.650.040.3031.4%
Miniature Poodle1878.424.110.030.2930.0%
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA1164.452.67-0.030.3743.0%
Standard Poodle17489.763.650.020.3132.0%
Swedish Vallhund914.612.57-0.020.3841.8%
Toy Poodle628.424.100.010.2728.0%

We can now use complex mathematical formulas to determine genetic relatedness, using just the identifying alleles in the UC Davis Genetic Diversity Test. Genetic relatedness is determined by the probabilities of animals inheriting the exact same alleles at the exact same loci. Those with more alleles that are the same - even infrequent ones - can be said to be genetically related. They could be related directly or indirectly, but they are genetically similar.

Likewise we can now identify dogs that are unrelated to others. Breeds should have many dogs that are unrelated to others so that if there is a problem, dogs can be selectively breed to lower risks for that problem. Some breeds have maybe unrelated dogs, and others have very few and are therefore at risk.

BreedNumber in Database
Average Genetic Relatedness How closely related same breed dogs are on average
Percent of Breed Unrelated Average percentage of the breed unrelated to each dog
Akita (Blend)16-0.0965.0%
Alaskan Klee Kai2600.0051.2%
American Akita35-0.0257.1%
Biewer Terrier124-0.0258.5%
Doberman Pinscher379-0.0557.9%
Flat-Coated Retriever257-0.0153.7%
Giant Schnauzer1030.0050.2%
Golden Retriever58-0.0154.1%
Havanese181-0.0155.8%
Italian Greyhound196-0.0257.1%
Japanese Akita93-0.0350.7%
Labrador Retriever74-0.0564.7%
Miniature Poodle187-0.0258.5%
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA1160.1224.4%
Standard Poodle1748-0.0256.2%
Swedish Vallhund91-0.0155.4%
Toy Poodle62-0.0157.6%

Alleles are versions of genes, and the alleles tracked by the UC Davis Genetic Diversity Test are identifiers. Alleles are either infrequent in a breed, neutral (at a level that is neither too infrequent or highly frequent) or highly frequent in that breed. All breeds have a certain number that are highly frequent because that's part of what makes them a breed. However, when too many become highly frequent, the breed is at risk for loss of genetic health.

Dogs with more infrequent alleles tend to be less related to any possible bottlenecks or founder effects - situations where only a few dogs become unnaturally influential in a breed. Some breeds have known bottlenecks, and one way to correct these is to look for and breed for a higher Outlier Index in the breed. The lower the average OI in a breed, the more it is influenced by a small set of founders or a genetic bottleneck.

BreedNumber in Database
Avg. Infrequent Alleles per Dog Alleles at risk of being bred out of the population
Avg. Neutral Alleles per Dog Alleles at balanced frequency
Avg. Highly Frequent Alleles Alleles at risk of becoming too common
Avg. Outlier Index A measure of influence from a genetic bottleneck
Akita (Blend)1610.99.245.80.39
Alaskan Klee Kai2606.411.248.30.31
American Akita359.76.949.40.31
Biewer1248.39.248.50.32
Doberman Pinscher3795.15.255.70.17
Flat-Coated Retriever2576.58.551.00.26
Giant Schnauzer1037.010.848.30.32
Golden Retriever586.97.951.20.26
Havanese1818.012.645.40.38
Italian Greyhound1966.610.149.30.29
Japanese Akita937.77.750.60.27
Labrador Retriever7410.011.942.10.43
Miniature Poodle1879.48.748.60.33
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA1169.812.443.90.42
Standard Poodle17488.05.252.70.24
Swedish Vallhund9110.711.843.50.43
Toy Poodle629.911.644.60.41

Another way to compare breeds is to look at ancestry averages. Dogs from unusual lines tend to have more unusual ancestry, calculated not allele by allele but locus by locus. When dogs have two parents that are unusual, they have more pairs of alleles with low frequency. When an unusual dog is bred to a highly typical dog, they have more pairs of alleles where one allele is highly frequent and the other is unusual. When breeds are well managed, and breeders select strongly for health while also breeding less related dogs, the breeds tend to have higher numbers of neutral alleles. Where there have been recent or sustain outliers being bred to more typical dogs, there will be a higher 'admixed' percentage.

BreedNumber in Database
Unusual Ancestry Average percent of unusual genetics inherited from both parents
Neutral Ancestry Average percent of well balanced genetics inherited from both parents
Typical Ancestry Average percent of highly typical genetics inherited from both parents
Admixed Ancestry Average percent of both highly common and unusual genetics inherited from both parents.
Akita (Blend)169.1%4.0%67.8%19.1%
Alaskan Klee Kai2604.7%5.3%76.8%13.3%
American Akita355.5%2.5%71.2%20.9%
Biewer1245.2%3.2%73.7%18.0%
Doberman Pinscher3792.1%2.1%83.6%12.2%
Flat-Coated Retriever2573.4%4.2%77.7%14.7%
Giant Schnauzer1034.3%6.3%74.8%14.5%
Golden Retriever583.3%3.2%77.5%15.9%
Havanese1816.6%6.0%72.1%15.3%
Italian Greyhound1964.1%4.1%77.6%14.2%
Japanese Akita934.4%3.7%75.1%16.8%
Labrador Retriever748.4%5.8%66.2%19.6%
Miniature Poodle1875.9%3.6%71.1%19.5%
Shiloh Shepherd, ISSA1165.9%10.3%63.1%20.7%
Standard Poodle17484.1%1.5%76.2%18.2%
Swedish Vallhund916.7%7.2%63.0%23.0%
Toy Poodle627.9%5.0%68.3%18.9%

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